‘Each stitch is a thought of you dear, woven with loving care’
“The aim of this project is to produce a collaborative and creative piece of work that recaptures the essence of the ‘make do and mend’ ethos. Participants were asked to collect a memory from someone in East Lancashire who was a child during World War Two and then knit a square, choosing colours to represent the memory in a meaningful way.
A framed ‘blanket’ of these knitted squares has been created, with each square visually representing the wartime childhood memory of the individual. This project spans across several generations as the oldest participant to knit a square is in her nineties, whilst the youngest is only eleven years old.”
We are currently in the process of producing a booklet containing all the knitted squares and memories. In the meantime, please enjoy a snapshot of memories from this project below.
Wartime childhood memory of Gertrude Annie Bailey – written by her daughter Olive Laurie
“My mother was a confectioner who, before her marriage, had specialised in making and decorating cakes for special occasions. During the war, I had very happy memories of watching my mother making and decorating cakes to be sent to troops who were celebrating their 21st birthdays, most of whom were serving abroad.
The cakes were much appreciated and my mother received many letters of thanks from the young men who had received them. The brown of the square represents the dark fruit cake, a great luxury during the war, and the centre motif represents the special occasion.”
Square knitted by Olive Laurie
Wartime childhood memory of Teresa Matthews (sister of Ken Hardacre) – written by her granddaughter Amelia Matthews
“My grandma lived in Padiham during the war and she remembers brown tape being stuck across windows to avoid injury in case they shattered during an air raid. She also used to think that the barrage balloons looked like elephants in the sky! At primary school, someone brought a banana to class.
This was quite an event as nobody had seen one before. All the pupils in the class, including my grandma, enjoyed a slice of the banana. She also told me that when the air raid siren went off all her class were taken to St John’s Church next to the school and had to sit under the altar for safety.
The beige in my square represents the strips of tape on the windows and the grey is for the ‘elephants’ in the sky. The stripe of yellow is the one slice of banana my grandma tasted and the green is the altar cloth at the church.”
Square knitted by Amelia Matthews
Wartime childhood memory of Barbara Riding
“I remember visiting the hairdresser as a child. It wasn’t fashionable to have straight hair in the 30s and 40s. My mother let me have my hair permed while still at junior school. She took me to a hairdressers on Bolton Road.
“In those days your hair was wound round a bobbin which was clipped onto a wire fastened to a machine somewhere over your head. I was very scared in case there was an air raid. What would happen to me hung up by my hair to a machine?
“Barbara’s square is knitted with a light brown background to represent the sepia of an old photo and black to represent the curlers and wires.”
On Saturday, 1st May, staff and students from the Joint Honours’ programmes at Blackburn University Centre took part in another online event with Blackburn Children’s University and Eachstep Care Home. 57 children attended the event and had great fun decorating bunting and making ‘moon and star’ mobiles to celebrate Eid. Some of the children also met online with residents from Eachstep Care Home and enjoyed colouring cards for Eid and chatting to each other.
Sara Burton, Blackburn Children’s University Manager, said: “This was another fantastic event. The staff and students from Blackburn University Centre gave up their Saturday to run this and provided the children with lots of fun activities to do. Children were able to share stories and messages with some residents from Eachstep Care home, which was lovely to see too.”
On Saturday 27th March 2021, staff, students, children from Blackburn Children’s University and residents of Eachstep Care Home took part in an online Easter celebration and tea party. For part of the day, children participated in a series of craft activities supported by undergraduates from Joint Honours courses at Blackburn University Centre and facilitated by Sara Burton, Children’s University Manager. The children made bookmarks, hanging decorations and Easter bonnets before decorating and writing cards for the residents which were later posted to them. The residents also made cards which were given to the children by Sara.
In the afternoon, the children and residents came together via Zoom to be entertained by the ‘Happy Voices’ choir, who sang a medley of local folk songs and songs from WWII. During the entertainment, the children enjoyed Easter eggs and other treats provided by Blackburn University Centre. Celebration cakes, Easter bonnets and 100 Easter eggs had previously been donated to staff and residents of Eachstep by project leads Sandra Nichol and Val Jessop for them to enjoy during the concert. The whole event was coordinated by Sara Burton, and the concert was led by Helen Washington and culminated with a rendition of ‘We’ll meet again’. Helen said ‘ choir members were delighted to see how much the children and residents enjoyed all the songs and music ‘.
Project leads Sandra Nichol and Val Jessop said ‘This was such an enjoyable celebration and everyone looked wonderful in their Easter bonnets. The children seemed to enjoy the singing and some were dancing to the music. Sara and Helen did a marvellous job of coordinating the different online activities, the choir were great, and everything ran smoothly. A thoroughly enjoyable day’.
Sara Burton commented ‘This was another fantastic session with Blackburn University Centre and Eachstep Care Home. It was a shame that we couldn’t have an actual tea party, however this online event was a huge success and enjoyed by all. The children really enjoyed the craft sessions where they made an Easter bonnet and a bookmark. For the celebration event Happy Voices choir performed a variety of songs and were amazing. Children and staff were able to join in the singing too! I loved seeing everyone together with their Easter bonnets on and enjoying eating their cakes and listening to the choir’.
Please take a look at the showreel of the event below…
The project has provided students from several courses at Blackburn University Centre with opportunities to develop key transferable skills.
Students on the Foundation Degree in Photography have taken some great portrait photographs of participants and have also helped to record interviews and make showreels of our online events.
Students on the Foundation Degree in Fashion and Textiles came up with the idea of making face masks as a craft activity for our Remembrance Event as part of a work-based learning module.
Students from the Joint Honours programme on the History, Sociology, Politics and English Literature pathways have been incredible in their efforts with our online events with Blackburn Children’s University and Eachstep Care Home. They have planned and delivered some wonderful activities which have received great feedback from the children, parents and Eachstep residents, as well as our external partners.
Being part of the project has encouraged quite a few of our students to go into teaching and their project contributions have helped to secure teaching placements. All students who have participated in the project have said it has been an enjoyable and rewarding experience.
Fiona Bradley – Joint Honours: History and English Literature
Lois Fitzpatrick – Joint Honours: History and Sociology
On 13th February 2021, children from Blackburn Children’s University and residents from EACHSTEP Care Home took part in an online friendship event to coincide with Valentine’s Day.
The event was facilitated by staff and students from the School of Art and Society at Blackburn University Centre.
During the morning, the children took part in Zoom activities with Sara Burton, Blackburn Children’s University Manager, and decorated wooden hearts and made trees with messages of kindness, before ‘meeting’ with the residents in the afternoon.
The children and residents decorated hands which were turned into wreaths and exchanged with the help of Sara and Joanie Gleeson from EACHSTEP Care Home. During the event, some of the residents treated the children to a spontaneous rendition of ‘We’ll Meet Again’ and ‘It’s a Long Way to Tipperary’.
This the third online activity that the children and residents have taken part in after lockdown curtailed face-to-face activities which had been planned as part of the Heritage Lottery Funded Project, East Lancashire Childhoods: Sharing Stories, Making Memories. This is an intergenerational community arts project which aims to capture memories of the home front from people who were children during WWII.
Project Leads Val Jessop and Sandra Nichol said: “These events go from strength to strength as we have adapted to new ways of continuing interactions between children and residents. It was wonderful and quite emotional when the residents burst into song!”
Sara Burton, Blackburn Children’s University Manager, said: “We really enjoy running activities like these and working with Blackburn University Centre and EACHSTEP Care Home. Our members always look forward to these activities and cannot wait to receive their craft pack for the day.
“At this activity children shared with us messages of kindness and things they were going to do to help someone at home. It was so nice to hear, especially during these difficult times.
“The sessions with the residents from EACHSTEP are wonderful. The children who took part in the one in February loved hearing what the residents like to do and how old they were! We are looking forward to the celebration event at Easter.”
Joanie Gleeson, Activities Co-Ordinator at EACHSTEP Care Home, said: “The event was a great success. The residents loved connecting with the children and joining in the virtual craft activities.”
The next planned event is a socially distanced Easter celebration and tea party for the children and residents.
In November 2020, children from Blackburn Children’s University took part in a Sharing Stories Remembrance Event with students and staff from Blackburn University Centre.
During the event, the children learned about the gas masks worn during WWII and then designed their own face masks with a WWII theme using a mask template designed by undergraduates on the Fashion and Textiles programme at Blackburn University Centre.
The mask designs were collected from the children’s schools by Sara Burton, Blackburn Children’s University Manager, and delivered to the University Centre.
This is where they were made into face masks by the undergraduates as part of their work-based learning module. Sara then recollected the masks and distributed them to the children who were delighted to see their designs made into a real face mask.
Val Jessop and Sandra Nichol, Joint Project Leads on the WWII project East Lancashire Childhoods: Sharing Stories, Making Memories, said: “We are always amazed by the creativity of the children who attend our events and the face mask designs were imaginative and colourful.
“It was fantastic to see photos of the children wearing them! We’d like to thank the staff and students for all their work in making the children’s designs a reality.”
Sara Burton, Blackburn Children’s University Manager, said: “During the Sharing Stories, Making Memories activity, the children were given the challenge of designing their very own face mask. They were told that this would be made into an actual face mask for them to wear.
“I wasn’t sure how it would turn out, but when I received the finished masks I was amazed, they were fantastic. I have received so many positive comments from parents and carers, as well as from the class teachers who handed them out.
“They were just perfect and what a lovely item for the children to keep. I cannot thank the staff and students enough from Blackburn University Centre.”
On Saturday 8th December 2020, children took part in festive craft activities with residents of Eachstep Care Home.
Both sets of participants made Christmas cards for each other which were exchanged with the help of Sara Burton, Blackburn Children’s University Manager, and Joanie Gleeson, Activities Co-Ordinator at Eachstep.
Sara also ran several additional sessions for the children during the day. This is Sara’s evaluation of the sessions, including those with the care home residents and the children’s feedback.
Project Leads Sandra Nichol and Val Jessop said: “It was lovely to hear the children and residents chatting as they took part in the activities and asked each other questions about their plans for Christmas.
“The children designed their own cards and wrote messages for the residents. The residents coloured in their own holiday cards which were then passed on to the children. It definitely cheered us all up and made everyone feel very Christmassy!”
Joanie said: “It was an amazing event and the residents loved interacting with the children online and making Christmas cards. They can’t wait for the next event!”
On Saturday 12th November, children from Blackburn Children’s University took part in festive craft activities and recorded messages for the residents of EACHSTEP Care Home.
They also made Christmas cards for the residents and, in the afternoon, some of the children took part in a Zoom meeting where they ‘met’ five of the residents and asked and answered questions about Christmas, hobbies and experiences during the pandemic.
In what is the fifth and final blog in this series of posts I want to bring a sense of completion to my review of my late father, Arthur Tate’s ‘archive’ of material associated with his time as a prisoner of war in the Far East during World War Two.
Throughout these posts I have touched on a theme of missed opportunities on my part to fully engage with my father regarding the full meaning and context of the material he had saved for posterity – often against the odds and at great difficulty. There are gaps in my understanding that cannot now be filled, and I have consistently urged readers to take whatever opportunity presents itself to open a dialogue with older generations. They often have a wealth of knowledge and experience about the past which risks being lost to the record unless we go to the trouble of talking, listening and storing their reminiscences and insights.
Many have stories to tell of significant episodes in the history of this country that they experienced close up or from afar. But even the everyday and the apparently mundane aspects of daily life can illuminate the past in ways that ‘big history’, the narrative of conflict, of the movers and shakers of society, of institutions and organisations cannot.
With that in mind, I turn to one of the photographs at the end of this piece that features three items – two postcards and a greetings card. One of them is a postcard of the British aircraft carrier, HMS Implacable, which was refitted at the end of hostilities in World War II in order to play a part in the repatriation of British, Canadian and American prisoners of war. The ship’s hangars had been converted in Sydney in order to accommodate the extra passengers. My father and many hundreds of fellow camp survivors from across Asia were transported on Implacable across the Pacific, from Manila to Vancouver in late September, early October, 1945, with a stop off at Pearl Harbour, Honolulu, to allow the American servicemen to disembark before their final, separate, sea leg home. The photo-card bears a ‘Good Luck’ message and I presume copies were handed to the servicemen as they disembarked. The British survivors then journeyed across Canada by rail, with a variety of stop-offs en route. There is a picture postcard of the Red Cross Reception Centre in Calgary, Alberta, and a small printed card welcoming the ‘Gallant defenders of Hong Kong. Manitoba Salutes You’, which seems to have been distributed in Winnipeg. Once again, I presume they were small mementoes my father felt worthy of preservation.
A more surprising series of mementos, to my mind, at least, is featured on a further photograph at the end of this blog. The photograph contains three unwritten postcards and some Japanese currency. I suppose we would call them souvenirs, and that is why I find their presence in my father’s ‘archive’ a little unexpected. Other items speak of captivity, camaraderie, endurance and strength, whereas these – well, I’m not sure what they represent . . . One of the cards is an artist’s depiction of a bustling open air market, somewhere in the Tropics. Clearly, something my father acquired during the weeks awaiting repatriation from the Pacific. One is an image, again the work of an artist, showing a small, intimate Christian religious service, and the third, the most puzzling of all, is a card depicting a stylised image of, perhaps, a Samurai-type figure. All three cards, are, despite the passage of time, brightly colourful compared to so many of the items in dad’s collection. But their significance is lost to me now. There is also a little Japanese currency. A handful of tiny, highly decorated notes. I recall being allowed to hold them when I was a small child! I might have even been allowed to use similar notes as ‘swaps’ with schoolmates when I was a little older and exhibited a month or two’s interest in coin collecting! My memory is not clear on that. I noticed only recently that one note had a faint message written on it to my dad from one of his comrades during the years of captivity.
An item not featured among the photographs shown in the blog is a post-war ‘Port Record Book’ issued in Grimsby in May, 1947. The war ended in the Far East in August, 1945. My father was officially demobbed – released from the armed services – in May, 1946, after a lengthy, recuperative, return journey back to Britain. The Grimsby document lists the two trawlers my father worked on during a brief spell as a trainee deckhand on the North Sea fishing fleet. He had no previous links with the East Coast or the deep-sea fishing industry. I recall the odd conversation with him about that and he seemed as nonplussed by his own decision to have given it a try as I was. If there was an industry designed to test ones nerve and fortitude at the time, it was certainly life on the trawlers. It took him up to the Icelandic fishing grounds and he recalled the job of ridding the deck and rigging of any build-up of ice that could capsize the vessels. It was a dangerous environment. The experiment lasted a few weeks. I often wonder if the captivity and frustration of the war years had prompted him to test himself in such an unforgiving environment?
And finally, I’ll comment on another aspect of the ‘archive’ that I have a little more knowledge of than some other items. There’s a photograph included in those below featuring scenes of a war cemetery and headstones. In the 1980s my father contacted the authorities in Hong Kong in an attempt to reach some resolution with a matter that had clearly weighed on his mind since his war service. Seemingly, either in the final, confused days and hours of the defence of the colony in December, 1941, or after the official surrender, my dad and some comrades hastily buried two men who had fallen by their side in the fighting around Stanley Village. I think that although he had no idea of the combatants’ identities, he might have been aware of their military units, as men became separated and units became mixed. He provided the authorities with as much detail as he possessed, including hand-drawn maps and plans of the graves’ whereabouts. He was relieved later to receive the photographs illustrating the care and attention that had been taken in the intervening years to rebury the fallen and mark their roadside graves.
I thought I knew the nature of the material my father held close for all those years after the war. Not its full significance and context, but at least what it consisted of. But in examining the items again for this blog I was surprised to find ‘hidden’ in a small, fragile Service and Pay Book, that he had carried with him throughout captivity, a poem . . .
It had been written in pencil in tiny letters on a blank page of the Army-issue pocket book. But either time had rendered the script almost invisible, or it had been written so lightly as to deliberately escape detection at first glance. The paper is not torn or rough, and so I don’t think there was an attempt to rub out the text at some later date. The fact the book had accompanied my father on his Far East journey, and was not a later replacement provided as part of the demob process, is attested to by further handwritten notes, much clearer, at the start and end of the record book noting his stay in prison camps and the declaration, ‘War Over August 15th’, on the last page. The official details written in the book do not show the signs of intense fading exhibited by the poem.
It proved immensely difficult to decipher the writing even after I had spotted its presence, with only a few words here and there clear enough to make out. But with the aid of internet searches I discovered the poem, The Burial of Sir John Moore after Corunna. It is a eulogy to military sacrifice, camaraderie and honour. Of unity in the face of defeat. It speaks of British militarism. Of stirring fortitude designed to capture a boy’s imagination. Its author was Charles Wolfe. Occasional words of the eight-verse epic can be made out.
Remember, my father was just 15 when he lied about his age to join up in Blackburn in 1937 when he would have first been issued with the pay book. His ‘false’ date of birth is written clearly. He was a product of elementary schooling for the working classes where learning by rote and recitation was a central element of the mass education curriculum, especially of poetry which extolled Britain’s perceived place in the world order and which gloried in tales of Empire.
The poem, penned in 1817, resonates with an air of triumphalism over a ‘defensive victory’ at the Battle of Corunna in Spain, part of the Napoleonic Wars, as British forces retreated to the coast and evacuated under fire, with the commanding general Sir John Moore killed in action and buried by the port’s ramparts. I had never come across the poem before and I doubt it features much these days in any review of nineteenth-century poetry, although it was a staple of earlier popular anthologies. To modern ears it will jar with militaristic and colonial-era rhetoric and imagery. The honouring of an elite soldier while the rank and file dead were thrown in pits, with commemoration of the masses awaiting later conflicts. Its style, too, will appear laboured and formatted. But to impose our own world view or standards on what earlier generations thought appropriate, acceptable, worthwhile or entertaining is to do a great injustice to the past. We may not approve, but we should at least try to understand.
Memorisation and recitation were the main points of popular poetry engagement for millions during much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. There was a belief that the system helped store up a treasure of ‘worthy’ literary ideas to be drawn upon in later life as comfort and guidance. Writing of the power of memorisation, John Henry Newman, theologian and poet, suggested in 1870: ‘Passages, which to a boy are but rhetorical commonplaces, neither better nor worse than a hundred others which any clever writer might supply, which he gets by heart and thinks very fine … at length come home to him, when long years have passed, and he has had experience of life, and pierce him, as if he had never know them before, with their sad earnestness and vivid exactness.’
I can only speculate here. But perhaps as a boy dad had been thrilled by the imagery in the poem. Perhaps the tone of sacrifice and camaraderie had made such an impression that he chose to keep it close during the challenging years of captivity. I like to think so. I like to think that it might have provided some sense of escape, perhaps some sense of meaning or context to what he was enduring. But that, as I say, is mere speculation. It is an idea no clearer than my puzzlement as to the manner of its composition – barely legible but, to a young man who had perhaps learned it by heart, easily read and safe from the risk of forgetting.
I have finished previous blogs with quotes on the nature of history. I end this final blog with The Burial of Sir John Moore after Corunna, by Charles Wolfe. The poem is designed to be read as to the rhythm of a drumbeat . . . a replacement for the missing military drum tattoo at the hasty burial.
Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note, As his corpse to the rampart we hurried; Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot O’er the grave where our hero was buried.
We buried him darkly at dead of night, The sods with our bayonets turning, By the struggling moonbeam’s misty light And the lantern dimly burning.
No useless coffin enclosed his breast, Not in sheet or in shroud we wound him; But he lay like a warrior taking his rest With his martial cloak around him.
Few and short were the prayers we said, And we spoke not a word of sorrow; But we steadfastly gazed on the face that was dead, And we bitterly thought of the morrow.
We thought, as we hollowed his narrow bed And smoothed down his lonely pillow, That the foe and the stranger would tread o’er his head, And we far away on the billow!
Lightly they’ll talk of the spirit that’s gone, And o’er his cold ashes upbraid him — But little he’ll reck, if they let him sleep on In the grave where a Briton has laid him.
But half of our heavy task was done When the clock struck the hour for retiring; And we heard the distant and random gun That the foe was sullenly firing.
Slowly and sadly we laid him down, From the field of his fame fresh and gory; We carved not a line, and we raised not a stone, But we left him alone with his glory!